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Around 15% of the couples have difficulties achieving pregnancy. Infertility is defined as the impossibility to achieve pregnancy within one year of trying. The reason for waiting one year before beginning tests is due to the fact that human reproduction is highly inefficient. The monthly pregnancy rate of a couple without infertility disorders is about 7%, and after 12 months this percentage exceeds 70%.

As statistics are useful in populations but not in individual cases, any couple unable to conceive within the first months of trying begins to think there might be a problem. First of all, the physician should explain to them that pregnancies usually do not occur right away, and most probably, it will not be long before they come back pregnant. The exception to this is when past conditions in the medical history of one member of the couple might have had consequences for their ability to procreate, or when the woman is over 38, in which case you may want to start tests without delay.

Infertility should always be considered a problem of the couple as a whole, and its diagnosis should take this aspect into account. Having difficulty procreating is a very frustrating situation for human beings, because aside from the enormous desire to have a child shared by almost every couple, there is a great deal of social and family pressure on the infertile couple that puts them in a state of constant distress. First of all you should consult with a reproduction specialist, because otherwise unnecessary tests or treatments are often prescribed and this may delay and even hinder pregnancy.

Nowadays, the causes of infertility should be detected within one or two months, and the knowledge of etiology allows the proposal of a treatment plan to achieve pregnancy as soon as possible. Tests are relatively simple and consist in finding out:


 
 

1) Whether the man has a semen with normal characteristics by means of a semen analysis.

2) Whether after the intercourse there is a normal amount of sperm reaching the uterus.

3) Whether the woman ovulates normally, by means of hormones tests, temperature controls and transvaginal ultrasounds.

4) Whether the uterus and the fallopian tubes are normal, which is detected by means of an X-ray known as hysterosalpingography.

 
 

When the etiology cannot be established, we should order a more complex procedure known as laparoscopy, which consists in viewing the pelvic organs by means of an optical instrument.